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Background and Objective: When examining women’s economic activity, it should be emphasised that related issues are a relatively new research direction, and an understanding of the specifics of the subject seems particularly important given that the number of women starting businesses in recent decades has been characterised by a permanent upward trend. The aim of this article is to present – against the background of the literature on the subject and empirical data collected by governmental institutions operating in the European Union – the entrepreneurial activity rate of women in Poland over a ten-year period (2012–2021).

Materials and Methods: The article is based on reports and working papers published by Eurostat and the Central Statistical Office (CSO). To calculate the data presented in the publication, mathematical analysis tools were used in the field of comparative research, the occurrence of trends and the indication of existing trends and noticeable increases.

Results: Poland’s twenty-first position compared to other EU Member States points to unlimited development opportunities and the need to support this economic space at every level of economic activity. This conclusion is reinforced by the statistics achieved by the opposite sex - men - which showed an upward trend over the period studied (2012–2021). This is also confirmed by the value of the calculated median female gross salary, which is lower by EUR 126.2 than the median male gross salary in Poland.

Practical implications: A defined indicator of female entrepreneurship will allow recommendations to be tailored for state bodies and local government institutions supporting women’s economic activity in Poland as well as in other EU countries with a similar economic structure.

Conclusion and summary: Visible discrimination against women appears in the analysis of the average gross salary at different organisational levels in Poland, which can be used as an argument to support and create additional aid programmes to support women’s economic activity.


entrepreneurship, economic activity, women’s activity, European Union


Vol. 2 No. 37 (2023):
Research article
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